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The following list presents the five dimensions and the number of corresponding indicators and sub-indicators:

  • Promotion: how much do authorities encourage eligible applicants to apply?
  • Documentation: how easy is it for applicants to prove that they meet the legal conditions?
  • Discretion: how much room do authorities have to interpret the legal conditions?
  • Bureaucracy: how easy is it for authorities to come to a decision?
  • Review: how strong is judicial oversight of the procedure?

A country's overall CITIMP score is calculated as the simple average of these five dimensions. Based on a 0 to 1 scale, countries with scores closer to 1 create fewer obstacles in the implementation of naturalisation law. For each of the five dimensions, procedures that score closer to 1 involve greater promotion, easier documentation, less discretion, less bureaucracy, and/or stronger review. Countries with scores closer to 0 create more obstacles in the implementation of the naturalisation law. For each of the five dimensions, procedures that score closer to 0 involve little promotion, difficult documentation, wide discretion, greater bureaucracy, and/or weak review.

CITIMP indicators allow for comparisons of the specific steps in the procedure across countries. CITIMP indicators can be combined with CITLAW naturalisation indicators and CITACQ statistical indicators in order to analyse the impact of a legal regime on the rates of citizenship acquisition.

CITIMP indicators have been calculated for 35 European states, as well as for three German federal provinces. We use the following labels for average indicators: EUROPE for all 36 states, EU 27 for all 2012 member states of the EU, EU 15 for the pre-2004 EU member states and EU 12 for the post-2004 accession states.

CITIMP Indicators have been developed by Thomas Huddleston for the EUDO CITIZENSHIP consortium partner Migration Policy Group.

EUDO Citizenship Implementation Indicators (CITIMP) compare the formal aspects of naturalisation procedures. These include all stages of the process from efforts by public authorities to inform potential applicants to the appeal options against a negative decision. CITIMP uses 53 implementation indicators and sub-indicators to measure key elements of the procedure. These indicators are grouped and averaged together into five dimensions of administrative practices and procedures regulating naturalisation.

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